Why, in 2021, does anyone need to learn about assembly language? First, reading assembly language is the way to know exactly what your program is doing. Why, exactly, is that C++ program 1 MiB (say) instead of 100 KiB? Is it possible to squeeze some more performance out of that function that gets called all the time? For C++ in particular, it is easy to forget or just not notice some operation (e.