Compiling source code produces a binary. During compilation, you can provide flags to the compiler to enable or disable certain properties on the binary. Some of these properties are relevant to security. Checksec is a nifty little tool (and shell script) that, among other functions, identifies the security properties that were built into a binary when it was compiled. A compiler might enable some of these properties by default, and you might have to provide specific flags to enable others.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Linux is a family of open source Unix-like operating systems based on the Linux kernel, an operating system kernel first released on September 17, 1991 by Linus Torvalds. Linux is typically packaged in a Linux distribution (or distro for short).
Distributions include the Linux kernel and supporting system software and libraries, many of which are provided by the GNU Project. Many Linux distributions use the word “Linux” in their name, but the Free Software Foundation uses the name GNU/Linux to emphasize the importance of GNU software, causing some controversy.