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Linux is a family of open source Unix-like operating systems based on the Linux kernel, an operating system kernel first released on September 17, 1991 by Linus Torvalds. Linux is typically packaged in a Linux distribution (or distro for short).
Distributions include the Linux kernel and supporting system software and libraries, many of which are provided by the GNU Project. Many Linux distributions use the word “Linux” in their name, but the Free Software Foundation uses the name GNU/Linux to emphasize the importance of GNU software, causing some controversy.
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No, usb4 has the thunderbolt3 spec inside it, which amd now supports. Thunderbolt 4 is Intel only.
It’s mostly a certification thing (which is performed by Intel): https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thunderbolt_(interface)#Royalty_situation
According to that, anyone can make the standalone chips now regardless of CPU (although most of them are still made by Intel, I think)